Ultimate GLOBALISATION guide

04 February,2017 by Jack Vamvas

Types of globalisation;

  1. Cultural – made possible by communication technologies which circulate globalised news, media and events. Global migration encourages multi-cultural hybridisation. Movement around the globe produces diaspora = the dispersal across boundaries of those sharing a common culture.
  2. Environmental – the development of global monitoring systems due to global problems occurring such as global warming.
  3. Political – trade blocks e.g. the EU evolves into full unions, people argue that the power of the Nation state has declined.
  4. Economic- international organisations contribute too globalisation of economies.

How can globalisation be measured?

  1. The use of global technology e.g. the normality of internet users and internet hosts
  2. Political engagement e.g. the number of foreign embassies hosted
  3. Personal contacts e.g. the normality of passport holders as a percentage of total population over the globe
  4. Economic integration e.g. volume of trade flows visible and invisible size pf financial markets
  5. Cultural integration e.g. attitudes to immigration, number of world events hosted and refugees etc.

Why has globalisation accelerated in recent years?

Technologies for a shrinking world;

. air travel

. internet usage

. fibre optics

. broadband

. telephone links

. GIS & GPS

How have these technologies created a shrinking world?

. Internet – connects with other people and makes them “closer together”

. Broadband – large amounts of data can be transported quickly, meaning connections with people and businesses etc. are accessible and becoming even more quick and easy as time goes on.

. GPS & GIS – satellites broadcast position and time to users over the world efficiently

. Fibre Optics – cables under the sea transport information quickly and easily

How could global flows be viewed as threats?

  1. Migration – not enough jobs to go around and also not enough resources to provide for everyone in one particular area e.g. healthcare.
  2. Natural resources being sent to richer countries leaves a threat on the origin country of the resources. Typically, high income countries buy many resources from lower income / developing countries meaning that the developing country is left with a limited and low amount of essential resources.
  3. Information can provide citizens with knowledge that their government finds threatening.

Key terms for Globalisation;

  1. Tariff; a tax imposed on imports
  2. Subsidy; Financial assistance to a business by government to make it competitive or prevent collapse
  3. Quota; A limit on the quantity of a good country allows into the country
  4. Protectionism; Policies to protect businesses and workers in a country by restricting / regulating trade with foreign nations
  5. Free – Market Economy; A market economy based on supply and demand with little or no government control
  6. Free – Trade; A policy where a government does not interfere with imports or exports by applying tariffs, subsidies or quotas
  7. Privatisation; Transferring ownership of a public service / agency / property into private ownership run for profit
  8. Neoliberalism; A political philosophy of free markets, free trade, privatisation and increasing the role of business in society (while decreasing the influence of government). It is thought that by making trade easier, there will be more of it, meaning wealth and reduction of poverty.

Influence of technology;

SOCIAL – Migration = more common due to IT helping long – distance relationships, therefore easier to move and leave friends and family behind because it is easier to stay in contact and also with the development of jet aircraft and other transport it is easier to return to visit.

ECONOMIC – IT allows companies to keep in touch more easily e.g. skype. TNC’s (Trans National Corporations = large companies with factories or offices located in different areas of the world) have expanded their companies due to this which means they can make and sell more products. Furthermore, the development of transport has enabled company’s products to be shipped worldwide and expand as a business.

CULTURAL – cultural traits e.g. music and language are adopted very fast through social media e.g. Gangnam Style has 1.8 billion views worldwide.

POLITICAL – social media raises awareness about political issues and how to overcome them on a global scale. Environmental charities can spread messages online. People can discuss issues such as human rights on a global scale and support other countries rights also.

Essay summarising the main globalisation notes above;

Outline the factors which have led to the development of globalisation and explain their contribution;

Globalisation is the increase of integration between economies around the world, mainly involving the movement of services and goods over borders but there are also other types of globalisation that take place over long periods of time such as; cultural, political, and environmental.

            The development of transport has contributed to globalisation massively. Forms of transport such as steam boats, trains and aeroplanes has enabled goods to be transported across borders efficiently, quickly and conveniently with little hassle alongside it. Transport developments over the years has allowed cultural globalisation to also develop through goods and services such as different foods being transported over borders which has enabled different cultures to integrate. However, transport has also lead to the development of environmental globalisation due to the amount of air pollution being released such as Co2 and the technology that has been created to monitor the problems occurring.

            Secondly, the evolution of technology and in particular the internet has increased the number of social media sites and the easily accessible communication through people over different borders. This has meant the development of cultural globalisation has increased massively. Furthermore, around 20 years ago, trade took place over long periods of time and many phone calls whereas now, due to the evolution of communications, trade has increased on both a small scale; with online shops for personal use such as ebay and amazon and on a larger scale; trade between countries and over borders done online and communication through IT. The increase in trade links with the increase in environmental problems due to how the items are shipped and also has increased the numbers of jobs available in online retail companies or TNC’s (Trans national companies).

            Secondly, since the increasing use of transport, power and energy; global warming and other environmental problems have arisen. A result of these problems has meant that the technology needed to monitor and assist prevent these environmental effects that are damaging the globe has increased and developed massively, over the last decade in particular. This has resulted in a huge expansion to environmental globalisation.

            As the expansion of the globe takes place, disagreements take place and war increases between countries and nations. The supplies needed for wars are now so scarily easy to get hold of that you can order technology to make a bomb to your house online. On a larger and more well-known scale, bombs can be set off with just a click of a button millions of miles away. Now there is huge amounts of technology all around the world to track army planes and ships. This has lead to increase in environmental globalisation due to the amount of Co2 and other poisonous gases being released, also it leads to a development in political globalisation because of the many disagreements related to war.

            Overall, one of the largest contributors to the development of globalisation is the dramatic expansion of technology. There are also many other factors relating to the boost of globalisation such as advancing communications etc. The development of globalisation has positives; easier to travel and experience new opportunities e.g jobs. But it also has negatives; certain places becoming overpopulated, therefore less jobs and low supplies on resources. However, the world would not function without development in any sectors and the population in MIC’s and HIC’s are so used to the recent developments of technology and communications it would be hard for many people to imagine a life without their “everyday necessities”.

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Author: Jack Vamvas (http://www.sqlserver-dba.com)


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